Types Of Performance Appraisals
In some cases, the performance appraisal processes are structured and formally sanctioned while in other cases they are an informal and essential part of daily activities. Performance refers to the extent of completion of the tasks that make up an individual’s job. One type of performance appraisal is to evaluate employees against standards of personal qualities and work profile. Usually trait rating evaluation systems may list about ten to fifteen personal traits. These personal traits may include the ability to get along with people, analytical competence, initiative, and leadership. The list may also include work related aspects such as job knowledge, ability to follow assignments, production or cost results, and success in seeing that plans are being carried out as expected. Many a times, employees may oppose this type of evaluation.
One realistic problem of the trait-oriented approach to appraisal is that trait evaluation cannot be objective. Serious and far-minded managers may not wish to be subjective when evaluating employees on matters as vital as performance. To make matters worse, employees receiving a rating lower than what they feel is justified always feel that they have been dealt with unfairly.
One widely used type of performance appraisal is the system of evaluating performance against the setting and accomplishing of objectives. Once a program of evaluating by objectives, which are achievable is operating, appraisal may become a fairly easy task. Supervisors determine how well objectives have been set and how well have employees performed against them. In some cases where performance appraisal by results has failed, the principal reason may be that managing by objectives was seen only as an appraisal technique and in such a case it is most unlikely to succeed. Appraisal by objectives must be a way of planning as well as a key to organizing, staffing, leading, and controlling. When performance appraisal is done this way, the appraisal takes into consideration whether or not employees have established adequate but reasonably attainable objectives and how they have performed against them within a specified period of time.